Antrorata® or Antrodia Camphorata is one of the major ingredients of Dr. Vita Maca.
Read on and discover what health benefit does it offers when you take Dr. Vita Maca.
Antrodia camphorata is a unique mushroom of Taiwan. It is a medicine fungus of the family Basidiomycetes that has been used as a folk drug in Taiwan for the treatment of various health conditions. Chemical compounds found in A. camphorata include steroids, triterpenoids, and sesquiterpene lactone.
This article discusses the taxonomical description of Antrodia camphorata, its chemical constituents, and the pharmacological effects of its crude extracts.
What is Antrodia Camphorata?
Over 80% of the world’s population relies on traditional or indigenous medicines for their primary health needs. Most of these therapies involve the use of herbal extracts, usually in aqueous solutions. Antrodia camphorate is a fungal parasite on the inner vacity of the endemic species Cinnamomum kanehirae Hayata (Lauraceae). The host plant is a large broad-leaved evergreen tree which only grows in Taiwan, and is distributed over broad-leaved forests at an altitude of 200 to 2,000m. Cinnamomum kanehirae is a superior quality material used to manufacture valuable furniture. The Taiwanese government has recently protected this endemic tree specifies from forest-denudation since this species is quite rate.
In Taiwan, Antrodia camphorata is also known as Chang-chih, Chang-ku, Niu-chang-ku, or Niu-chang-chih. Locally, it is believed that Antrodia camphorate is a present from above for the people, and is a well-known Chinese folk medicine. It is claimed to be a ‘ruby in mushroom’ in Taiwan. It grows in the mountain ranges of Hualien, Kaohsiung, Miaoli, Nantou, and Taoyuan of Taiwan. The trophophase of Antrodia camphorate occurs from June to October.
Being a local species, Antrodia camphorata was historically usd in Taiwan by the aborigines as a traditional medicine prescription for the discomforts caused by exhaustion or alcohol drinking. Moreover, regular consumption is believe the promote longevity and preserve human vitality.
The preparations from fruiting bodies have been used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, itchy skin, hypertension, food and drug intoxication, tumorigenic diseases, and liver diseases.
Ku is a common Chinese name that means mushroom, while chih refers to a popular Ganoderma-like fungus. Antrodia camphorata was first identified as a new ganoderma species, Ganoderma camphoratum, by Su and Zang in 1990. However, according to fruiting-body morphology and cultural characteristics, this fungus has been given the name Antrodia camphorata.
In 2014, a phylogenetic analysis based on sequence data retrieved from large ribosomal sub-unit sequences of ribosomal RNA genes indicated that A. camphorata is distantly related to other species in the Antrodia family, and consequently, the fungus was transferred to the new genus, Taiwanofungus. However, A. camphorata was reconsidered as an Antrodia species after reviewing the polymorphism analysis of internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal RNA gene.
Currently, the taxonomic position of A. camphorata is as follows: Aphyllophorales, Basidiomycota, Fungi, Homobasidiomycetes, Polyporaceae.
A total of 78 compounds have been identified and structurally revealed. Predominantly in fruiting bodies are terpenoids in a large number (39 compounds). A large number of triterpenoid compounds (31 structures) with similar or even the same structures were described in the recent years. A common feature of these structures is its lanostane or ergostane skeleton.
Due to the high amount of terpenoids in the fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorata (63%), this group of natural compounds has been the focus on many phytochemical studies. In addition to polysaccharides, several constituents were described from Antrodia camphorata comprising benzenoids, benzoquinones, lignans, and succinic/maleic acid derivatives.
Pharmacological Effects of Antrodia camphorata Crude Extracts
The scientific world’s interest in Antrodia camphorata and its healing properties came from traditional medicine. Ethnic medicine has come to be an irreplaceable source of knowledge of medicinal mushrooms and their healing qualities, as well as creating clues for scientific research.
Listed below are some of the pharmacological effects of Antrodia camphorata crude extracts.
- Anti-Inflammatory/Immunomodulatory Effects
Compounds capable of interacting with the immune system to up regulate or down regulate particular aspects of the host response can be classified as biologic response modifiers or immunomodulators. Studies reveal that extracts from SCM of Antrodia camphorata displayed anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production with an IC50 ranging from 2–20 g ml−1.
The aqueous extract from SCM dose dependently inhibited the lipopolysaccharide induced nitric oxide, interleukin, tumor necrosis factor, PGE2 production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase and COX-2 protein expression via NF-κB pathway, in macrophages.
- Anti-Oxidant Activities
Research reveals that Antrodia camphorata is a potent direct free radical scavenger. The stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) is scavenged by Antrodia camphorata extracts. Aqueous extracts of A. camphorata inhibited nonenzymatic iron-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates with an IC50 value of 3.1 mg ml−1.
Compared to other Antrodia camphorata extracts, it has been revealed that the fermented culture broth of Antrodia camphorata and aqueous extracts of the mycelia from Antrodia camphorata harvested from submerged cultures are the most potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation, possessing significant free radical scavenging properties. Furthermore, the aqueous extract from SCM of Antrodia camphorata possesses anti-oxidant properties with respect to oxidative modification of human low-density lipoproteins in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.
- Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Replication
Research reveals that extracts from the mycelium of Antrodia camphorata have in vivo anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activity in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the ethanol extract displayed anti-HBV effects on both lamivudine-resistant and wild-type HBV mutants. The ability of Antrodia camphorata to inhibit the replication of HBV in vivo and in vitro is one of the reasons to consider this fungus as a potential treatment alternative for Hepatitis B.
- Anti-Cancer Activities
Both the mycelium and fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorata have potent anti-proliferative activity against various cancers in vivo and in vitro. It was indicated that there were several potent mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effects of Antrodia camphorata.
The crude CHCl3/MeOH extract from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorata showed significant cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value of 4.1 g ml−1 against P-388 murine leukemia cells. Also, the ethylacetate extract from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorata showed apoptotic effects in two human liver cancer cell lines, PLC/PRF/5 and Hep G2 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, extract from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorata also initiated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway through the regulation of B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 family proteins expression, activation of caspase-9 both in Hep G2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells, and the release of cytochrome c. Furthermore, it also inhibited cell survival signaling by reducing the level and activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the nucleus and enhancing the amount of Iκ–α in cytoplasm, and subsequently reduced the expression of Bcl-XL in Hep G2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells.
Treatment with extract from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorata also caused another human liver cancer cell line – Hep 3B – to undergo apoptotic cell death by way of calcium-calpain-mitochondria signaling pathway. Another study revealed that extract from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorata could inhibit the metastasis of liver cancer cell line PLC/PRF/5 cells by inhibiting angiogenesis.
- Asthma Treatment
The anti-inflammatory and immune modulating actions of Antrodia camphorata offer potential in asthma treatment. Animal studies show that Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides dose-dependently inhibited the development of Th2 immune status, airway eosinophilia, and airway hyperresponsiveness.
- Cardiovascular Disease Treatment
Traditionally, Antrodia camphorata has been used to treat a broad range of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and hypertension. Antrodia camphorata extracts have been shown to promote vasodilation and inhibit the thickening of blood vessel walls.
- Anti-Hypertensive Effect
In one study, extracts of solid-state and wild cultures Antrodia camphorata were obtained by sequential extraction with cold water, methanol, and hot water, respectively. Among these three, only methanol extract showed potent anti-hypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats by decreased diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure; however, these effects were absent in Wistar Kyoto rats. These findings might have a scope to develop Antrodia camphorata to be a healthy food to regulate blood pressure levels.
What is Antrodia?
Antrodia is a genus of fungi in the family Fomitopsidaceae. Antrodia species have fruit bodies that generally resupinate (i.e. spreads out on the growing surfaces or lying flat), with the hymenium exposed to the outside, while the edges may be turned so as to form narrow brackets. Most species are found in boreal and temperate forests, and cause brown rot.
What is Antrorata®?
Today, Antrodia camphorata extract is widely used in herbal capsules, herbal blends, teas, and health supplements. It is typically combined with other healthy, all-natural ingredients such as Antrorata®. Antrorata® has been shown to improve liver function in detoxification and purification; it also contains triterpenoids to reduce GPT/GOT; and has been shown to reduce fatigue and enhance physical strength.
The Bottom Line
Antrodia camphorata is a unique mushroom of Taiwan. It is a medicine fungus of the family Basidiomycetes that has been used as a folk drug in Taiwan for the treatment of various health conditions.
Antrodia camphorata extract has been proven to have healing properties. Research has shown that it has anti-cancer properties, anti-inflammatory effects, anti-hypertensive effects, and is a good treatment alternative for cardiovascular diseases, asthma, and other diseases.
Antrorata® is an all-natural ingredients that helps reduce fatigue and enhance physical strength.
That makes Dr. Vita Maca a super booster that helps improve your physical performance.